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Stone Zoo, Stoneham, Massachusetts  

Zoo New England operates the Stone Zoo in Stoneham, Massachusetts as well as the Franklin Park Zoo in Boston.
The Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) is the only species of deer in which both the males and the females have antlers.  Each spring reindeer shed their antlers and a new set begins to grow in the summer.  During the growing phase, the antlers are covered with a furred skin called "velvet" that carries the blood supply to this rapidly growing tissue.  Once the antlers are fully grown the velvet dies and is shed from the now hard antlers.  The antlers at the forward tips branch out in a unique manner.  They can migrate hundreds of miles between grazing grounds on the tundra.  In the summer they feed on grass and other tundra plants.  In winter reindeer feed mainly on lichens, scraping away the snow with their hooves to get the plants.  Their coat is dense and waterproof, so they don't feel the cold.  The hooves are broad and enables the reindeer to walk easily in deep snow.  In the fall, the males pursue females in heat.  Duels between males are rare..  After about eight months the females gives birth to a single calf.  Once the calves are born, they can start following the mother within minutes and can run with the herd within a few hours of their birth.  Their range is: Alaska, Canada, North Europe, Greenland, Scandinavia to Siberia and Asia. 
 
Yak (Bos grunniens) - West China, Tibetan plateau, North India, Kashmir.  Wild Yak live in mountanous terrain at an altitude of 13,000 to 20,000 feet.  They have wooly, dense blackish-brown hair that sometimes reaches almost to the ground.  They are sturdy and sure-footed and able to handle the tough terrain and harsh, cold climates.  Both the male and female Yak have curved horns which grow from the sides of their broad and bulky heads.  When  a group is threatened, they form a phalanx, facing outward with their horns lowered, the calves being in the middle of the group.
Zebu (Bos tourus indicus) - Tibet.  The Zebu have been domisticated and raised throughout the world.  The Zebu hump is like a camel's hump which stores fat that can be used when food is scarce.  
 
Black-Necked Crane (Grus nigricollis) - During the summer months, Black-Necked Crane breed on the plateaus of Tibet, northeastern India and northwest China.  In the winter they are in lower altitudes in southeast China and northern Vietnam.  They do not have webbed feet, but are good swimmers.  Courtship involves elaborate dancing, leaping, jumping, calling and preening.  The Black-Necked Crane is the only Alpine Crane.  
 
Markhor (Capra falconeri) - These largest of the Caprinae (wild goat) can be found in middle Asian mountains and forests, Afghanistan and the Himalayas.  Markhor migrate to higher elevations in the spring summer months returning to lower elevation in the late fall. The male Markhor has a long beard on the chin and long hair on the throat, chest and shanks.  The females have smaller fringes of long hair.  Both the male and female have horns.  The male's spiral shaped horns are impressive sometimes reaching 5 feet, whereas the females are smaller.  The male is usually solitary.  They are sure-footed and nimble, climbing and jumping over rocky terrain easily.  Even newborns navigate steep slopes with ease.  
 
Markhor live in herds of from 9 to around 100 females with young.  The females usually deliver 1 or 2 kids.  The newborn kids can navigate steep slopes with ease.    
 
Snow Leopard (Panthera uncia) - Central Asia from Northwestern China to Tibet and the Himalayas, Pakistan and Afghanistan in high mountains (up to 20,000 feet )  The Snow Leopard has very dense, thick fur that is pale gray on the back and white on the underside.  A black streak runs down it's back.  There are rosettes on the sides of the body and the long, solid tail.  The rest of the body is spotted with solid circles on the neck, head and legs.  They are capable of leaping large ravines with their powerful legs.  The Snow Leopard's long tail helps them keep their balance during leaps of 40 feet or more

  

 
 
Snow Leopard has small ears to help reduce the loss of body heat in the extreme cold weather in the Himalayan's harsh environment.  Large paws act like snow shoes and keep them from sinking into deep snow.  The thickness of the fur insulates them from the cold.  They are certainly built for life in the extreme cold mountains.  
 
Chilean Flamingo (Phoenicopterus chileniss) - The Chilean Flamingos are slightly smaller than the Caribbean Flamingo (Phoenicopterus ruber).The Chilean Flamingo can be found in Central Peru, South America on both coasts (mainly in winter), Argentina, Urugray, Paraguay, Southern Brazil, and some in the Falkland Islands.  They feed primarily on invertebrates in the water.   Chilean Flamingos have gray legs with pink bands at the joints.  
 
The female flamingos lay one large egg (3 inches) which is chalky white.  If an egg is lost early in incubation, a second replacement egg may be laid.  This process is called double clutching.  (Thank you to Sea World for some of my info.)  The incubation period is 26 to 31 days.  The Flamingo make their nests in a mound of mud that looks like a small volcano.  These mounds help to keep the eggs above the wet ground.  Both female and male take turns sitting on the egg in this mound.  A parent will carefully lift and turn the egg with its bill.  The chick breaks through the shell using a growth on its bill called an egg tooth.  The egg tooth is not a true tooth and falls off soon after hatching.    Newly-hatched chicks have gray or white down feathers, a straight red bill and plump, swollen red or pink legs.  The leg swelling decrease approx. 48 hours after hatching and the red bill and leg turn black in seven to ten days.  After hatching a flamingo chick is not very active.  The chick will leave the nest in four to seven days when it is strong enough to stand and walk.  Of course, the parents keep a close watch on them.  Chicks gather in large groups called creches (French for crib).  Parents are able to locate their own chicks in the creche at feeing time.  Chicks lose their juvenile gray or white color and feathers turn pink gradually over one, two or even three years.  The last part of the skin to turn pink is often the ankle or hock joint.   
 
The Cougar (Felis concolor)  (Mountain Lion, panther, Puma)  The cougar can be found throughout the Western Hemisphere.  In the desert areas and Mexico, the Central American areas, such as the tropical forests, The lowlands to mountainous regions in the United States and in West Central Canada.  The Florida panther, a cougar sub species, lives in Florida and east of the Mississippi.   The Cougar can leap as high as fifteen feet.    
 
 
Egyptian Vulture (Neophron percnopterus) - Southern Europe, Middle East, Africa, West Asia, India.  This small vulture has a bare face and shaggy neck feathering, mostly white with black tail section.  When carcass are not available, they will eat ostrich and flamingo eggs.  It is one of the few species to use a tool.  In order to break into an ostrich egg, the vulture will drop a rock on it to crack it open.     
 
Southern Ground-Hornbill (Bucorvus cafer) - Parts of Africa south of the equator.  The Southern Ground-Hornbill is the largest African hornbills. They walk and forage on the ground most of the time, living in groups that patrol and defend their territory, pecking and digging at the ground.  Females lay one to three eggs in a hole in a tree lined with leaves, but not walled up in the tree.  She is free to go, but covers the eggs with leaves when she is not sitting on the nest.  
 
These Southern Ground-Hornbills have a distinct red throat wattle and white wing patch seen when in flight.  
 
Egyptian Goose (Alopochen aegyptiacus)  Upper Nile Valley and Africa south of the Sahara; introduced in England.  Although it is called a goose, it is really a species of shelduck.  Seen on land, it grazes on grass, leaves and seeds.  The female has a trumpet-like quacking, where the male's is softer.    
 
Bateleur Eagle -   
 
Bateleur (Terthopius ecaudatus) - Africa south of the Sahara, Southwest Arabia.  The Bateleur is also known as snake eagles or snake hawks.   A spectacular bird in flight because of it's long wings and very short tail, it can soar for hours.  
 
Eurasian Eagle-Owl (Bubo bubo) - Europe, east Siberia and south of India and China.  It has distinct ear tufts and a boldly streaked breast and mottled plumage.  They are active in the day as well as at night.    
 
King Vulture (Sarcorampgus papa) - Mexico to Argentina.  They are 31 inches in height.  The king vulture is one of the few birds that relies heavily on its sense of smell in order to detect food.  They have broad wings and a short tail.    
 
King Vultures live in the rain forest and has a colorful bare head.  They are easily recognized by their distinct plumage.  The King Vulture flies low over the treetops and on warm days it finds rising air currents (thermals)ll and circles to gain height.  Stranded fish on river banks are an important food  source.    
 
White-necked Raven (Corvus albicollis) - East and South Africa.  This Raven has a massive bill reinforced by an arched top ridge.  They are very smart and learn quickly.  This raven usualy stays in mountains and crag, flying strongly with the powerful wings, soaring easily on the updrafts.  They can roll and swoop in an aerobatic performance.       
 
Yellow Headed Amazon or Yellow Crowned (Amazona ochrocephala) - Coastal regions of Mexico, Central America, South to East Peru, North Bolivia, and North Brazil, Trinidad, Tobago.  The "Amazons" refer tp the medium-sized parrots with predominantly green plumage and some brilliant markings.  They are amazing mimics and talkers as this one is demonstrating.   During the day groups of parrots feed in the treetops for seeds, berries, cuts and blossoms.  This species uses its foot to hold food up to its bill.  The red wing patches can be seen in flight.   
 
Red-Legged Seriema (Cariama cristata) - East Bolivia, Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay, North Argentina in tropical and subtropical grasslands.  They are very fast runners with powerful legs, using this running ability to escape danger instead of flight.  The feather tuft on its forehead makes this bird look rather silly. The red-legged Seriema from South America has much in common with the Secretary Bird of Africa.  Both are ground-dwelling birds that live in grasslands.      
 
Red-legged Seriema -   
 
Bald Eagle (Haliaeetus leucoephalus) - North America, Southern United States and parts of Mexico.  the Bald Eagles are fishing eagles.  Their talons enable them to pluck fish out of the water to carry them to a nearby perch to eat.  When the salmon swim upstream the eagles have a feast.  They get other food from a wide range of sources.  The female is larger than the male.  The Bald Eagle has a pure white head and neck with a white tail and rump.  The juvenile eagle will not get their white head and tail feather for two or three years.  Pairs remain together and reestablish bonds each year with spectacular courtship displays.  The eagles lock talons in mid-air and somersault through the air together in a marvelous display.    Their nests are large made of sticks sometimes measuring over 8 feet wide.  Each year they add to the nest.  The Bald Eagle is our National Symbol of the United States.    
 
Peregrine Falcon (Falco peregrinus) - Peregrine Falcon are found on every continent except Antarctic.  They like open areas with high cliffs near water.  They are the fastest animals in the world.  They can reach speeds of 200 mph while diving for prey.  Because of its skills it is the most highly prized bird for falconry.  They weigh one to two and a half pounds.  The wingspan is from 38 to 46 inches. The wings are tapered and pointed. Length, 15 to 19 inches.  
 
North American Otter (Lontra canadensis) - United States, Canada and Alaska.   The River Otter moves rapidly and playfully from the banks of the river, loving to slide down into the water.  This weasel-like mammal is about 46 inches long with a rich brown coat of fur.  They have a rudder-like tail that is more than half the size of the body of the otter.  The Otter will weigh around 21 to 25 pounds.  This streamlined character has a heavy growth of sensitive whiskers on its upper lip and special muscles for closing its nostrils and its ears when it dives.  In the water the otter is insulated against the cold by the air bubbles trapped in the fur.  They have good eye sight underwater, but their sense of touch helps them, too. The whiskers on its muzzle are sensitive so that the otter can move and fish in muddy waters.   They will travel over land to visit other ponds and rivers.     
 
The Otter is very sensitive to only being in clean, unpolluted rivers, lakes or ponds.  The den is called a holt and is either in a hollow in a banking, under the roots of a tree but always near the river or lake.   The otter cubs can be born any time of the year.  Usually two or three cubs are born in a litter.  The otter cubs have to be pushed into the water by the mother, not taking to the water willingly.  Once in the water they take to it quickly.     
 
We observed this otter as he turned on his back to eat what he'd found in the water.  They eat fresh water fish, crustaceans, frogs, invertebrates, reptiles  crayfish and small mammals.  The Otters intestine is specially adapted for dealing with fish.  Fish bones cannot damage the intestine because its walls shrink immediately and form a small obstruction which pushes the bone away.   Their webbed feet, oily fur and tube shaped body is well adapted to swimming.    
 

Beardsley Zoo - Connecticut
Blank Park Zoo, Iowa
Bronx Zoo, NY
Brookfield Zoo, Chicago
Catoctin Wildlife - Maryland
Central Park Zoo, New York
Cheyenne Mountain Zoo
Cincinnati Zoo - Ohio

Cleveland Zoo - Ohio
Dallas Zoo, Texas
Denver Zoo
Florida Zoos 
Franklin Park Zoo, MA
Honolulu Zoo

Houston Zoo, Texas
Kansas City Zoo 
Kobe Zoo
Lincoln Park Zoo
Longleat Safari, England  
Los Angeles Zoo
Maryland Zoo in Baltimore

Memphis Zoo, TN 

Nashville Zoo, TN
North Carolina Zoo
Omaha Zoo
Oregon Zoo
Paris Zoo, France 
 
Philadelphia Zoo, PA 
Rio Grande Zoo

Riverbanks Zoo - SC
Roger Williams Park Zoo
San Antonio Zoo, Texas 
San Diego Wild Animal Zoo
San Diego Zoo, CA
Smithsonian National
         Zoological Park
Southwick Zoo
St. Louis Zoo
Stone Zoo, New England
Ueno Zoo, Tokyo
Wildlife Safari, Nebraska 
Zoo Granby-Canada

Zurich Zoo - Switzerland

 

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